The theme is quite relevant at this hour when changes in agriculture production and cultivation pattern is being observed in different parts of the world due to drastic changes in the climatic pattern. Increase in demand for fuel, food, diversion of good crops to fuel, inflationary peak particularly observed in food items can have a detrimental effect on the gap between demand and supply of food products and food security of the nations as a whole.
The worst affected, under such circumstances will undoubtedly be the people residing in the developing and the underdeveloped nations of the world. Poor people of these countries are largely dependant on agriculture which is most vulnerable to climate change. Increase in the instances of crop failures and livestock deaths have already resulted in huge economic losses undermining food security in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. This will in turn result in food insecurity and finally result in riots and unrest in different parts of the world.
Thus, at present, the world is not even on track to achieve the World Food Summit target of reducing the number of hungry people from million to million by Moreover, the world prices have risen 45 percent in the last nine months. Although India had long back achieved self-sufficiency in food, the Government of India has launched the new National Food Security Mission with the basic objective of grappling with the persistent yield storage in the country. The mission will increase the production of rice by 10 million tones, wheat by 8 million tones and pulses by 2 million tones in five years by the end of 11th Five Year Plan The desired target does not look difficult.
The primary reason of this optimism is that there happens to be a substantial gap between the current average yields and the potential yields which can be bridged with the help of available technologies. The basic objectives can be achieved by bridging this current yield-potential yield gap or even by narrowing it appreciably. This has implications for the entire food supply chain.
Supermarkets have become an emerging force in South Asia, particularly in urban India, since the mids. The growth and power of international food corporations affect the opportunities of small agricultural producers in developing countries. Market entry is often barred to the majority of producers because of stringent safety and quality standards of food retailers.
Trade and urbanisation affect consumer preferences. The rapid diversification of the urban diet cannot be met by the traditional food supply chain in the hinterland of many developing countries. Consequently, importing food to satisfy the changing food demand could be relatively easier and less costly than acquiring the same food from domestic sources. In Asia, traditional rice-eating societies are consuming increasing quantities of wheat in the form of bread, cakes, pastry and other products.
Countries that traditionally [imported rice for meeting food shortfalls may now be shifting towards increasing levels of Wheat imports. This trend is also evident in the import of other temperate products like vegetables, milk and dairy products and temperate fruit. The overall result is that we are beginning to see a homogenisation of food tastes across the globe, but with regional variations.
Poor connections between urban and rural areas hinder price transmissions towards local markets, broadening the gap between urban demand and rural production in increasing demand for traditional products or for product diversification. The lack of access to markets is most evident in Africa, although large parts of Latin America and Asia are also experiencing long transport hours to reach markets.
Consequently, domestic prices do not always follow international prices as an FAO report pointed out in The periods of rising real prices were generally associated with real exchange rate devaluations. Relaxation of government controls over prices and market systems also led to gains in producer prices in some cases. In other instances, import liberalisation appears to have contributed to a decline in the real domestic prices of some commodities.
Consequently, global shortages of food and feed that lead to global price increases are not followed by production increases at the local level. Accessibility to food is also determined by the long-term trend in food prices which is a different issue from price volatility.
In food prices were driven by a combination of rising fuel costs, production of biofuels, and unfavourable weather conditions, with trade restrictions boosting upward price pressures.
As the cost, and subsequent use, of fertiliser is strongly correlated with price, a potentially higher oil price would lower the use of fertiliser or further increase the food price. Fuel price is one of the main determining factors for fisheries. Rising energy prices have a strong impact on capture as well as aquaculture for the production and transport of fish feed and lead to higher costs during the processing, transport particularly air freight and distribution of fish products. Small-scale fisheries, which depend on outboard motors and small diesel engines, have especially suffered from the spiralling rise in fuel prices.
While a higher oil price increases demand for biofuels, there is a catch: The overall decline in food prices is not expected to be so marked because of biofuel use. Most of the quantitative and qualitative indicators of food security at the household level are linked to the poverty issue. As Amartya Sen points out, the poor do not have adequate means or entitlements to secure food, even when food is locally or regionally available. It is interesting to note that merely increase in income does not necessarily ensure improved nutritional status.
Access to gainful employment, suitable technologies and other productive resources are important factors influencing undernutrition.
Though, overall, soaring food prices are blamed for their impacts on human vulnerability, there are two sides to this picture. Increasing food prices do have a positive effect on net food-selling households FAO, , augmenting their incomes and allowing more possibilities for farmers to afford investments in production inputs. This underlines the need to minimise short-term price volatility and stimulate slow increases in long- term food prices, in order to enhance investments in the agricultural system and bridge the gap between developed and developing countries as well as between rural food producing and urban food consuming regions.
Ideally, these developments should take environmental aspects into account to achieve sustainable agricultural systems that will meet the food demand of all the world citizens and eradicate hunger. However, increasing yield and food supply without simply continuing the conventional expansion of cropland and rangeland and use of fertilisers and pesticides—at the cost of biodiversity and future generations—will require major investments and implementation of food energy considerations in the entire food production and consumption chain.
As already mentioned in discussing the problems of nutrition patterns, much requires to be accomplished to acquire equitability in this regard. Apart from quantitative aspect, qualitative aspects of diet such as consumption habits and nutritional needs also affect food security. In the absence of adequate attention to qualitative aspects of food, the ability of the individual to sustain the benefits of development gets affected.
The necessary inputs to the entrepreneurship process like capital, infrastructure and management training can therefore be dispatched to the rural areas as a base for establishing a vibrant economy, consequently increasing sufficiency and reducing dependency.
Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to understand and tackle poverty. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. Accessed September 15, We will write a custom essay sample on Food Security specifically for you. Leave your email and we will send you an example after 24 hours If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.
ADVERTISEMENTS: According to FAO, “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for a healthy and active life.” This involves four dimensions: ADVERTISEMENTS: i. Adequacy of food supply or availability; ii.
FOOD SECURITY IN INDIA SHOULD INDIA IMPORT OR USES ITS OWN RESOURCES: INTRODUCTION: v WHAT IS FOOD SECURITY? · Food is essential to the survival of people and grain is the principal food. Freedom from hunger is the most fundamental human right. · Food Security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it.
Toward a Typology of Food Security in Developing Countries,Governance Division, and International Food Policy Research Institute. Global Food Supplies Introduction Question 1 Globalization and technology enable food producers to access a wider market, increase opportunities, and competition with food supply and consumption. Food Security. it is the adequate and sustainable balance of these thing s that are sought when seeking food security at local.g. Food access: Access by individuals to adequate res ources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet.5/5(1).
Introduction World Food Summit defines food security as: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Food security is a basic human right and is achieved through three essential components: availability, access and utilisation - preparation and consumption of food and the biological capacity of an individuals to absorb and utilise nutrients in the food they eat /5(1).