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Basic Research Designs

What is a Research Design?

❶Choice of research methods and design should be thought of as a reciprocal process extending well into your study. This article is a part of the guide:

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Experimental Research Methods
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Different research books will use different terms for similar types of research. However, the research designs identified in this document are fairly common in terms of their use and their terminology.

Explore the relationship between two or more variables through a correlational analysis. The intent is to determine if and to what degree the variables are related. It does not imply one causes the other. Intent is to study and understand a single situation, which could be a leader, a classroom, a process, program, activity. Collect a variety of material in a specific and bounded time period. This is also used for historical studies, when collecting historical data to understand and learn from the past.

Compare two groups with the intent of understanding the reasons or causes for the two groups being different. Test an idea, treatment, program to see if it makes a difference. There is a control group and a test group. Individuals are randomly assigned to the two groups. One group gets the treatment test group and the other group control group does not get the treatment.

There is a pre and post-test for both groups in a traditional experimental design. It is the same as experiment in that there is a control and test group. However, current groups are used as is rather than randomly assigning people to the two groups. Both groups receive the pre and post- test in a traditional design. Studies a human experience at an experiential level such as understanding what it means for a woman to lose a child.

It is about understanding the essence or meaning of the experience. A mixed research design involves having both a quantitative design and qualitative design. Mixed designs is the best approach if the study requires both quantitative and qualitative designs to address the problem statement. Mixed design studies take significantly more time, more resources, and require the researcher to develop expertise in qualitative analysis techniques and quantitative analysis techniques.

Qualitative studies can use numbers, counts and even descriptive statistics. Using numbers does not mean the study has to be quantitative or mixed methods.

The following YouTube video uses psychological research questions as examples to discuss possible experimental designs. Research Designs - This web link explores the main types of research design and provides additional links for more information. Choosing Appropriate Research Methodologies and Methods - The following website discusses qualitative and quantitative research methods and factors that should be considered when choosing the appropriate method. Alan Byrman on Research Methods - This YouTube video contains comments and advice from Alan Byrman, Sage Publication research methods specialist regarding how to get started when selecting research methodology.

Types of Research Design: Education Portal Academy - The following YouTube video uses psychological research questions as examples to discuss possible experimental designs.

Qualitative Research Designs - The chart in the following link compares qualitative and quantitative research designs as well as describes the various types of qualitative research approaches. Overview of Psychology Research Methods - This article describes the most commonly used research methods in the field of psychology and gives a more in-depth look at specific quantitative research methods often utilized.

Educational Research - The Slide Share presentation linked here provides a wealth of information regarding types of research and basic research design. It compare empirical and non-empirical research, basic and applied research, and qualitative and quantitative research designs.

This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Basic Research Designs This module will introduce the basics of choosing an appropriate research design and the key factors that must be considered. Learning Objectives Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Identify whether or research project is qualitative or quantitative in nature.

List the key factors that must be considered when choosing a research design. Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement. Observational research often has no clearly defined research problem , and questions may arise during the course of the study. Observation is heavily used in social sciences, behavioral studies and anthropology, as a way of studying a group without affecting their behavior.

Whilst the experiment cannot be replicated or falsified , it still offers unique insights, and will advance human knowledge. Case studies are often used as a pre-cursor to more rigorous methods, and avoid the problem of the experiment environment affecting the behavior of an organism.

Observational research methods are useful when ethics are a problem. In an ideal world, experimental research methods would be used for every type of research, fulfilling all of the requirements of falsifiability and generalization. However, ethics , time and budget are major factors, so any experimental design must make compromises.

As long as a researcher recognizes and evaluates flaws in the design when choosing from different research methods, any of the scientific research methods are valid contributors to scientific knowledge.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Jun 19, Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Share this page on your website: How to Choose the most Appropriate Design?

This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Scientific Method". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments.

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Others argue that research design refers to the choice of specific methods of data collection and analysis. In your dissertation you can define research design as a general plan about what you will do to answer the research question. [1].

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Before examining types of research designs it is important to be clear about the role and purpose of research design. We need to understand what research design is and what it is not. We need to know where design fits into the whole research process from framing a question to Design methods design.

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Chapter 4: Research methodology and design reality assumed by positivism is realism, whereby a reality is assumed to exist; in contrast, post-positivism assumes that this ‘reality’ is only ‘imperfectly and. Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit .

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Basic Research Designs. Basic Research Designs. Overview of Psychology Research Methods - This article describes the most commonly used research methods in the field of psychology and gives a more in-depth look at specific quantitative research methods often utilized. A research method is a general framework guiding a research project. Different methods can be used to tackle different questions. Research design is a specific outline detailing how your chosen method will be applied to answer a particular research question. Research methods are generalized and.